Upper Urinary Tract Infection ( Acute pyelonephritis ) in Children - Management of Infection Guidance for Primary Care

Publication: 30/09/2010  
Last review: 01/01/1900  
Next review: 31/01/2019  
Clinical Guideline
UNDER REVIEW 
ID: 2270 
Approved By:  
Copyright© Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust 2010  

 

This Clinical Guideline is intended for use by healthcare professionals within Leeds unless otherwise stated.
For healthcare professionals in other trusts, please ensure that you consult relevant local and national guidance.

Upper UTI (Acute pyelo-nephritis) in Children

Illness

Comments

Preferred option

Alternative

Upper UTI (Acute pyelo-nephritis) in Children
HPA QRG
CKS
NICE54

Any child with clinical evidence of an Upper Urinary Tract infection should be Admitted for treatment and Investigation

Urgent Admission

Principles of Treatment

  1. This guidance is based on the best available evidence but its application must be modified by professional judgement.
  2. A dose and duration of treatment is suggested. In severe or recurrent cases consider a larger dose or longer course
  3. Choices are given as Preferred option or Alternative for patients intolerant of the preferred option and 2nd Line for when an alternative is required because of treatment failure
  4. Only send microbiology specimens if there is a clinical suspicion of infection. Inappropriate specimens (e.g. routine ulcer swab or routine catheter specimen of urine) lead to inappropriate antibiotic prescribing.
  5. Prescribe an antibiotic only when there is likely to be a clear clinical benefit.
  6. Consider a no, or delayed, antibiotic strategy for acute self-limiting upper respiratory tract infections 1,A+
  7. Limit prescribing over the telephone to exceptional cases.
  8. Use simple generic antibiotics if possible. Avoid broad spectrum antibiotics (e.g. co-amoxiclav, quinolones and cephalosporins) when narrow spectrum antibiotics remain effective, as they increase risk of Clostridium difficile, MRSA and resistant UTI's.
  9. Avoid widespread use of topical antibiotics (especially those agents also available as systemic preparations).
  10. In pregnancy AVOID tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, quinolones, and high dose metronidazole. Short-term use of trimethoprim (unless low folate status or taking another folate antagonist such as antiepileptic or proguanil) or nitrofurantoin (at term, theoretical risk of neonatal haemolysis) is unlikely to cause problems to the foetus.
  11. We recommend clarithromycin as it has less side-effects than erythromycin, greater compliance as twice rather than four times daily & generic tablets are similar cost. In children erythromycin may be preferable as clarithromycin syrup is twice the cost.
  12. Where a ‘best guess’ therapy has failed or special circumstances exist, microbiological advice can be obtained from LTHT Microbiology (Mon-Fri 9am-5pm and Sat and Sun 9am-1pm: 0113 39 23962/28580; Otherwise via LTHT switchboard - ask for the On call Microbiology Registrar)

Note

Note: Doses are oral and for adults unless otherwise stated. Please refer to BNF for further information.
Letters indicate strength of evidence:
A+ = systematic review: D = informal opinion

Provenance

Record: 2270
Objective:
  • to provide a simple, empirical approach to the treatment of common infections
  • to promote the safe, effective and economic use of antibiotics
  • to minimise the emergence of bacterial resistance and reduce the incidence of Healthcare Associated Infections in the community
Clinical condition:

Upper Urinary Tract Infection (Actute pyelonephritis)

Target patient group: Children
Target professional group(s): Primary Care Doctors
Pharmacists
Adapted from:

This guidance was initially developed in 1999 by practitioners in South Devon, as part of the S&W Devon Joint Formulary Initiative, and Cheltenham & Tewkesbury Prescribing Group and modified by the PHLS South West Antibiotic Guidelines Project Team, PHLS Primary Care Co-ordinators and members of the Clinical Prescribing Sub-group of the Standing Medical Advisory Committee on Antibiotic Resistance. It was further modified following comments from Internet users. The guidance has been updated annually as significant research papers, systematic reviews and guidance have been published. The Health Protection Agency works closely with the authors of the Clinical Knowledge Summaries.


Evidence base

Grading of guidance recommendations

The strength of each recommendation is qualified by a letter in parenthesis.

Study design

Recommendation
grade

Good recent systematic review of studies

A+

One or more rigorous studies, not combined

A-

One or more prospective studies

B+

One or more retrospective studies

B-

Formal combination of expert opinion

C

Informal opinion, other information

D

Clinical Knowledge Summaries web http://www.prodigy.nhs.uk. BNF (No 55), SMAC report - The path of least resistance (1998), SDHCT Medical Directorate guidelines + GU medicine guidelines, Plymouth Management of Infection Guidelines project LRTI and URTI.

Acute pyelonephritis

  1. Grabe M, Bishop MC, Bjerkland-Johansen TE, Botto H, Cek M, Lobel B, Naber KG, Palou, J, Tenke, P, Wagenlehner F. Guidelines on Urological Infections. European Association of Urology 2009: 1-110. Expert consensus is that admission should be arranged for more severe cases of acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis (e.g. dehydrated, cannot take oral medication, signs of sepsis).
  2. The Health Protection Agency and the Association of Medical Microbiologists recommends that people with acute pyelonephritis are admitted if there is no response to antibiotics within 24 hours. Lack of response to treatment is likely to be due to antibiotic resistance. The complications of acute pyelonpehritis can be life-threatening.
  3. The Health Protection Agency and the Association of Medical Microbiologists recommend ciprofloxacin and co-amoxiclav for the empirical treatment of acute pyelonephritis. This is based on the need to cover the broad spectrum of pathogens that cause acute pyelonephritis, and their excellent kidney penetration. Although they are associated with an increased risk of Clostridium difficile, MRSA, and other antibiotic-resistant infections, this has to be balanced against the risk of treatment failure and consequent serious complications in acute pyelonephritis.
  4. Talan DA, Stamm WE, Hooton TM, Moran GJ, Burke T, Iravani A, Reuning-Scherer J and Church DA. Comparison of ciprofloxacin (7 days) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (14 days) for acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis in women. A randomized trial. JAMA 2000;283:1583-90. This randomized double-blind controlled trial found that 7 days of ciprofloxacin 500 mg bd was as effective as 14 days co-trimoxazole. (E coli isolates were 100% susceptible to ciprofloxacin in this study.)

Document history

LHP version 1.0

Related information

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